India’s Amritsar massacre bore the ‘made in Ireland’ mark

"After a long and tempestuous life in the service of British imperialism, Sir Michael O’Dwyer had got used to a quiet life.

He endured years of recriminations over the Amritsar massacre which took place on April 13th, 1919. The episode in which British Indian troops opened fire on peaceful demonstrators in the Punjabi city of Amritsar, killing at least 379 (the number the British would admit to), effected a lasting rupture in British-Indian relations.

Amritsar happened on O’Dwyer’s watch while he was lieutenant-governor of the Punjab. The massacre horrified the British establishment. It was, according to Winston Churchill, a “monstrous event”. Its perpetrator, Colonel Reginald Dyer, was retired in disgrace....."