The following list of sectarian and other hate-driven incidents and attacks is from 1 through 31 Aug 2002. The criteria we use for inclusion is based on the Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) criteria; if a person/organisation feels that the motivation for an attack against them was sectarian (or racist or homophobic), then it should be counted as such. We rely on a number of sources for our information, but this is by no means comprehensive. If you find incidents that have been left off the list please contact us. A full dossier of sectarian and other hate attacks from January 1999 until July 2002 is available on our website at

Note: As a indication of the deteriorating sectarian situation in the north, especially in Belfast, it should be noted that the August 2002 list is almost three times as long as the corresponding PFC list from August 2001.

August 1, Thursday. David Caldwell, a 51-year-old Protestant construction worker at the Caw Territorial Army Base on the Limavady Road in Derry, died from wounds he sustained when a bomb that had been hidden in a lunchbox exploded in his hands. The Real IRA later claimed the killing. David Caldwell left behind four children and a partner. (LS, IN, BBC)

The Red Hand Defenders, a cover name used by the UDA/UFF, vowed to make a "measured response" to the Real IRA's killing of Protestant construction worker David Caldwell. The same organisation had used the term "measured military response" in claiming the killing of Catholic Gerard Lawlor on July 22 in north Belfast. (IN)

It emerged that Alliance, DUP and UUP councillors on Newtownabbey Council had voted down an SDLP motion to suspend normal business to discuss the upcoming anti-sectarianism rally being held in nearby Belfast. (NBN)

Healthcare workers in north and west Belfast held a one-day stoppage in response to a loyalist death threat issued against a Catholic social worker. (IN, BBC)

August 2, Friday. Nationalists were blamed for an arson attack at the Whitehouse Presbyterian Church on the Shore Road in north Belfast. The church was completely gutted in the fire. The local Catholic parish priest, Father Dan Whyte from St Bernard's, asked local Catholics to help rebuild the church, after members of the Whitehouse Presbyterian congregation had taken up a collection to help rebuild the Catholic chapel when it was destroyed in an arson attack last year. It was later announced that Catholic churches in north Belfast would take up a collection towards the repair of the Whitehouse Presbyterian Church. (IN, NBN)

Loyalists petrol bombed a Catholic family's home in Bawnmore in north Belfast an hour after they tried to abduct a teenager who lives in the house. The young man's mother said that her son was outside his home waiting for his usual lift to work when a car with three men in it pulled up and the men tried to drag the boy into the car. The teenager escaped, but the men returned an hour later and petrol bombed the house. Locals, who had taken the registration of the car, confirmed that the same car was used on both occasions. (IN)

Sinn Fein's Alex Maskey ­ the new Lord Mayor of Belfast ­ was sent a bullet in the post. The death threat has been attributed to the Orange Volunteers. It arrived at City Hall in Belfast only hours before Maskey was to take part in a rally against sectarianism. (IN)

Nearly 200 people, nationalists and loyalists ­ were involved in a stand-off on Derry's Cityside. The stand-off took place in the John Street area near the loyalist Fountain Estate. Loyalists had previously attacked a homeless people's shelter on John Street. Fountain community leaders condemned the attack. (DJ, CW)

Three thousand people attended an anti-sectarianism rally called by Sinn Fein Mayor Alex Maskey and backed by trade union leaders, business leaders, the First and Deputy First Ministers, and the four main Churches. The rally had initially been called after the UDA's murder of 19-year-old Catholic forklift driver Gerard Lawlor on July 22. Calls to support the rally were renewed after the Real IRA's murder of Protestant worker David Caldwell on August 1. The rally was boycotted by the DUP who are also boycotting Belfast City Council's anti-sectarian Good Relations Working Group, chaired by Tom Ekin of the centrist Alliance Party. (IN, SBN, CW, IT)

August 3, Saturday. The Andersonstown News reported that "there has been an upsurge in sectarian attacks in both Crumlin and Antrim, and loyalist graffiti has been daubed on walls in the town." This upsurge is being blamed on the Orange Volunteers, a loyalist paramilitary group that had claimed to have disbanded. (AN, CW)

Death threats were made to Belfast hospital staff by a caller purporting to represent a group called the Catholic Reaction Force. The caller did not use any recognised codeword. Republican sources dismissed the threats and claimed that they were in fact made by loyalists in an attempt to raise sectarian tensions. (IN, BBC)

Derry Postal workers staged a walk-out after death threats were twice issued to Catholic members of staff by loyalist paramilitaries. The threats came from the Red Hand Defenders, a cover name for the UDA/UFF. A phone call was made to the Samaritans on Friday and a second call was made to the home of a Catholic postman on Saturday. Loyalist sources close to the UDA/UFF denied that the organisation issued any such threats. According to a spokesman for the Communication Workers Union (CWU), "Šthere is a real fear, whether these [threats] are genuine or not, especially after the murder last week. We still have between six and ten people who refuse to go into the [predominantly Protestant] Waterside [area of Derry]."

It was reported that the Stevens III investigation into the death of Belfast solicitor Pat Finucane would reveal that two other Belfast solicitors were listed in British army intelligence files as being "pro-Republican" and that their details were, at the time, in the hands of British agent and UDA intelligence officer Brian Nelson. (IN, Guardian)

Sinn Fein representatives called for an urgent meeting with the Parades' Commission after it decided to allow an Apprentice Boys march through a contentious area in north Belfast. The Parades' Commission reached the decision despite referring to the previous march through the area ­ the Orange Order on 12 July - and admitting they were "appalled at the nature of the Orange Parade which passed the Ardoyne shop fronts on the evening of the twelfth of July." (IN)

August 4, Sunday. At about 6.00pm loyalists from north Belfast's Glenbryn estate attacked a number of homes along the Ardoyne/Glenbryn interface. According to local sources, between 50 and 100 loyalists hurled stones, bottles and fireworks at Catholic homes. Two pipe bombs were thrown into Catholic homes, while shots were fired from the Ardoyne into Glenbryn. Children playing on the streets ran into their homes screaming while the mob shouted sectarian abuse at residents. Loyalists claimed that the attack was in retaliation for nationalists trying to take down loyalist paramilitary flags in the area. (IN, NBN, CW)

Loyalists attacked houses and cars in the nationalist Cliftonpark Avenue area of north Belfast. A 15-year-old Catholic boy was also hospitalised after confronting a group of loyalists who had been throwing bricks at a Cliftonpark Avenue home. The loyalists attacked the boy with iron bars. Meanwhile, the family with whom the boy was staying have vowed to leave their north Belfast home; it will be the second home they have fled in recent months. (IN)

A Protestant family living on Twaddell Avenue in north Belfast abandoned their home following a sectarian attack. The door to their home was damaged and their car windows had been smashed with hammers. (IN)

A caller from the Red Hand Defenders, a cover name for the UDA/UFF, issued death threats against Catholic workers at the Mater and Ulster Hospitals. The caller used a recognised codeword. (IN, BBC)

August 5, Monday. British army bomb disposal officers diffused a pipe bomb in north Belfast. The pipe bomb was thrown from the loyalist Glenbryn estate and landed behind homes along the Catholic Alliance Avenue in the Ardoyne area. (IN, NBN, RTE)

A 20-year-old Catholic from north Belfast was attacked as he left a nightclub in Portrush, Co. Antrim. The young man, Christopher Whitson, was beaten by a mob in a car park outside the club, where he had been celebrating his brother's birthday. The group he was with had been subjected to sectarian taunting by a group of loyalists inside the nightclub. According to SDLP MLA John Dallat, "There is a strong suggestion that the victim was singled out because he was a Catholic." Mr Whitson sustained serious head injuries and was immediately rushed to the Causeway Hospital. He was later transferred to the Royal Victoria Hospital in Belfast due to the severity of his injuries. Christopher died on 12 August from his injuries (see below). (IN)

Graffiti, signed "UVF" and threatening to "Kill all Taigs" (the pejorative word for Catholics), reappeared in the mixed religion Knightsbridge area on the Waterside in Derry. (IN, DN, CW, LS)

A pipe bomb, which the PSNI first declared to be a hoax, and then admitted was an actual explosive device, was defused by the British army in the Lower Falls area of Belfast. (AN)

Loyalists were blamed for an attempted attack on a Catholic home near the Lower Ormeau Road in Belfast. The attackers ­ at least one of whom was armed ­ tried to force their way into the house using sledgehammers, but were prevented because reinforced glass had been installed in the house. (AN)

August 6, Tuesday. The Irish News reported that Tomas ODualaing, the principal of the multi-denominational Gaelscoil Thulach na nOg in Dunboyne, Co Meath, had been sacked, two months after having been suspended by the board of management, backed by An Foras Patrunachta, the governing body for Gaeilscoileanna. Mr ODualaing was suspended and then sacked for insisting that Catholic pupils receive their instruction in preparation for First Holy Communion outside of normal classroom hours. He insisted on this policy because he judged it would be unacceptable to make Protestant and other non-Catholic pupils either leave the classroom or sit through a lesson from which they were excluded. Mr ODualaing has the backing of the Irish National Teachers' Organisation (INTO), Labour and Sinn Féin TDs as well as the majority of parents of pupils at the school. (IN, IT, RTE)

In north Belfast, loyalists from Glenbryn and other areas attacked Catholic homes in Alliance Avenue for the eighth week in a row. Later, Catholic homes were attacked in the "mixed" Deerpark Road, Cliftondene Crescent and Oldpark Road areas. Two pipe bombs and a bottle of petrol were later found. Several sources confirmed that the UDA had fired shots into the Alliance Avenue area during the rioting. (IN, BBC, PSNI, NBN, RTE)

Elderly residents were evacuated after loyalists threw a hoax bomb in North Queen Street in north Belfast. The device was thrown from a passing car. Residents have claimed they are "under siege from forces within the UDA, who are terrorising them from the nearby Tiger's Bay." (NBN, AN)

The PSNI blocked a Catholic family's application to sell their north Belfast home under a Housing Executive scheme for victims of sectarian intimidation, despite the fact that their home had just been attacked for the eighteenth time in less than two years. A local Sinn Fein representative said that this was not the first time the PSNI had done this, and were "keeping this family directly in the firing line of loyalists." (NBN)

Loyalists who attacked a Catholic family's home in Cliftondene Park in north Belfast for the eighth time in three years told the father-of four whose family live in the house that they would come back and "finish off the job with bullets." Their neighbour's home, also Catholic, was attacked at the same time. (NBN)

August 7, Wednesday. Loyalists fired two shots into the living room of a Catholic family in the Dervock area of north Antrim. No one was injured, and a red Peugeot car, believed to have been used by the gunmen, was found burnt out nearby. The PSNI said they were treating the attack as sectarian. (IN, PSNI)

Loyalists threw bricks at a taxi at the corner of the Crumlin and the Oldpark Roads. Suspect devices were found in the Short Strand and Grosvenor Road areas of Belfast. (IN)

A loyalist mob from Glenbryn attacked Catholic homes in Alliance Avenue, north Belfast, with pipe bombs, bricks, paintbombs and other missiles. The attacks lasted several hours, and were condemned by nationalist and unionist politicians. SDLP councillor Martin Morgan condemned the PSNI for their inaction when "they [the loyalists] were on foot, hundreds of yards from their own district, yet they got back there safely". The DUP said that the attacks had been orchestrated. (IN, CW)

August 8, Thursday. A Catholic mother-of-five from north Belfast told of her fears for her family after the latest loyalist attack on their Alliance Avenue home. Two petrol bombs exploded in their back yard, causing some damage to the back of the house. (IN, RTE)

August 9, Friday. A Ku Klux Klan mural painted in the loyalist Village area of south Belfast­ featuring the letters KKK and a swastika ­ was condemned as "disgusting", "embarrassing and "blatantly racist" by local politicians. Patrick Yu, from the Northern Ireland Council for Ethnic Minorities said that this type of mural can "perpetuate or promote" racial harassment or attack. The mural was painted above a UFF mural, and beside a UDA one. Bizarrely, the mural for the racist and anti-semitic KKK was surrounded by a number of flags, including the post-apartheid South African flag and the Israeli Star of David. One source said that the mural was an attempt to underline loyalist links with the English fascist organisation Combat 18, who are known to have an active cell in the area. (IN, AN, BT)

A three-year-old boy escaped injury after he picked up a pipe bomb during a children's birthday party in Maghera in Co Derry. Homes in the mainly Catholic Largantogher Park in the town were evacuated as the British army dealt with the device. There were fourteen children, all aged under 11, in the house at the time. Loyalists have been blamed for planting the device, which it was reported may have been thrown as long ago as last October, when the family received a threatening phone call from loyalists. (IN)

It was reported that Sinn Fein's Gerry Kelly had taken part in talks with Mervyn Gibson of the Loyalist Commission to discuss ongoing sectarian tensions in Belfast. (IN)

The Police Ombudsman announced that she would be investigating the role of the PSNI during recent violence in east Belfast. The announcement follows a complaint and threat of legal action by a Short Strand woman who claimed loyalists prevented her from taking her sick child to a doctor's surgery, and that the PSNI refused to intervene to help her. (IN, SBN)

A bomb alert outside an Orange Hall in Co Down was declared a hoax. (IN)

A suspected pipe bomb thrown at a Catholic home in Clandeboye Drive in the Short Strand in east Belfast was declared a hoax. (IN)

A man escaped injury after kicking an unexploded pipe bomb in University Avenue in south Belfast. The device was later dealt with by British Army technical officers. (IN)

August 10, Saturday. A 22-year-old Protestant man was treated in hospital after he was attacked by a gang of four men on the edge of the Fountain estate in Derry in the early hours of the morning. His family said that they had no doubt that the attack was sectarian. Sinn Fein and the SDLP condemned the attack on the man. Earlier, a bonfire in the Fountain Estate was set alight prematurely by a petrol bomb. Local DUP MLA Willie Hay said he had no doubt that both incidents were sectarian. (IN, LS)

A 15-year-old Catholic, who was wearing a Republic of Ireland football shirt, was attacked by a gang of up to nine Protestant teenagers in the Waterside area of Derry. It was reported that a bottle was smashed in his face before he was beaten to the ground and kicked. Local SF, SDLP and DUP representatives condemned the attack. (IN, DJ, LS, UTV)

The annual Apprentice Boys parade took place in Derry. Stewards from the Apprentice Boys, particularly in the Diamond area, did their best to curb the sectarian and sexist behaviour of drunken bandsmen. Although the march was reasonably peaceful in the Cityside, a number of Catholic homes were attacked and damaged by bandsmen in Barneswell Place in the Waterside. Chief Superintendent Peter Sheridan of the PSNI condemned the actions of a number of bands in the Diamond in the city centre as "provocative" and said that the PSNI would be studying video footage with a view to prosecutions. He claimed that nine bands had been identified as having been involved in sectarian abuse. Former SDLP MP Ivan Cooper said that tougher action should be taken against marchers who gave Nazi salutes during the parade. One loyalist marcher was photographed wearing an Osama Bin Laden mask. In a related incident a 14-year-old was arrested by the PSNI and accused of having spat at marchers. While in custody the PSNI took a DNA sample from the youth with no solicitor present and without permission of parents. Authorisation was sought after the fact. (IN, DJ, LS)

The PSNI were accused of standing by while a loyalist mob attacked Catholic bar staff in Derry city centre. The claim was made by a number of bar staff who have lodged an official complaint alleging that officers, who were in a landrover about 100 metres away, did not intervene as a group of 12-15 men, who came from the direction of the Fountain estate, attacked their car with stones and bottles at around 1.30am. (DN)

An Apprentice Boys parade in Lurgan, which had been ordered to clear the town centre by 7.30pm, did not leave the town until 10.00pm. Sinn Fein MLA Dara O'Hagan said that people in the town were "very angry" that the Apprentice Boys had once again broken the Parades Commission determination. [It is the norm in Lurgan that the mainly-Catholic northern end of the town centre is kept completely sealed off by the PSNI during loyal order parades, preventing nationalists from going about their normal business in the town.] (IN)

A 27-year-old Catholic man was treated in hospital after being attacked by a number of men who got off a bus bringing marchers back from the Apprentice Boys parade in Derry. The attack occurred in Kilrea, Co Derry. Local SDLP MLA John Dallat claimed that the man was "lucky to be alive" after the attack. Some reports stated that the bus had been stoned prior to the attack. (IN, BBC)

A Strabane SDLP councillor was attacked by loyalists returning from the Apprentice Boys parade in Derry. Councillor Ann Bell claimed that the loyalists threw beer bottles at her after their bus stopped on the Melmount Road in Strabane. Loyalists also tried to attack a Catholic church in the same area. (DJ)

More rioting erupted at the Short Strand interface in east Belfast. Short Strand Sinn Fein councillor Joe O'Donnell claimed that the PSNI had deliberately failed to prevent loyalists from attacking the Catholic enclave. It was claimed that the trouble was started by drunken bandsmen returning from the Apprentice Boys parade in Derry. (IN)

Two bursts of gunfire were reported in the loyalist Glenbryn area of north Belfast. (IN)

The DUP were condemned for failing to attend a meeting at Stormont to discuss violence at interface areas in north Belfast. They responded by describing the number of meetings about the situation in north Belfast as "countless." (AN)

It was reported that up to 400 members of the UDA would position themselves less than 100 yards from a flashpoint area in north Belfast during a contested Apprentice Boys parade. The move was described as "provocative." (IN, CW)

In Finaghy, south Belfast, loyalists attacked the offices of SDLP councillor Carmel Hanna, daubing it with paramilitary slogans. On the same night they attacked the home of another SDLP party worker. (CW)

It was reported that the gun used to kill Catholic teenager Gerard Lawlor in July was the same weapon used to kill Sam Rocket, who died during the loyalist feud in August 2000. If the speculation was true, it would link the murder of Mr Lawlor to the Lower Shankill ŒC' Company of the UFF. The PUP's Billy Hutchinson said that there was no doubt the PSNI were in a position to confirm or deny the speculation, and added that "It is well known that ŒC' Company [of the UFF] are run by the security forces." (IN, AN, NBN)

Sinn Fein councillor Paul Butler called attention to the high number of UDA flags flying in mixed areas of Stoneyford, Co. Antrim. "Both communities in the village should be able to live together as equals, free from any display of flags which are threatening and heightening sectarian tensions," said Butler. (AN)

August 11, Sunday. A group of drunken nationalists attacked an open-air prayer service in Randalstown, Co Antrim. Five people were treated in hospital after the attack and a number of arrests were made. (IN, BT, IT)

A controlled explosion was carried out on a pipe bomb found in Walmer Street, off the Upper Ormeau Road in south Belfast. (SBN, PSNI)

Two pipe bombs exploded in the Short Strand in east Belfast. A third device was defused. (CW, PSNI, NL, BBC)

August 12, Monday. Christopher Whitson, the 20-year-old Catholic student injured in a sectarian attack outside Kelly's nightclub in Portrush, Co Antrim on Monday August 5, died from his injuries at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Belfast. (See above.) (IN, BBC, NL)

It was reported that up to 30 Catholic families living at a north Belfast interface were planning legal action against acting Chief Constable Colin Cramphorn. They claim that the PSNI had failed to protect then from sectarian attacks. (IN)

Sinn Fein mayor of Belfast, Alex Maskey, met members of the UDA-aligned Ulster Political Research Group (UPRG) to discuss sectarian violence in north and east Belfast. The meeting was later described as "frank and productive." The UPRG also met with NIO minister Des Browne later in the week. (NBN)

A 15-year-old boy from the Short Strand accused the PSNI of not taking a threat on his life seriously. The boy ­ who had a gun aimed at him by loyalists ­ said that when he asked officers for help in getting back to the Short Strand after the incident they refused, leaving the boy and his friend to make their own way back through a loyalist area. The boy claimed that one officer told him, "It's not as bad as you think, it's a legally held weapon," and that there were 20 other reports of a man brandishing a gun in the same area that night. A spokesperson for the PSNI said they were aware of the incident but could not substantiate the teenager's claims. (SBN)

Petrol bombs were thrown from Clandeboye Gardens in the Short Strand into Cluan Place, on the loyalist side of the interface. (PSNI)

August 13, Tuesday. Loyalist youths attacked a Catholic man who was putting up posters in the Clooney Road area of the Waterside in Derry. (DJ)

A pipe bomb that blew a hole in the roof of a Catholic home in the Short Strand in east Belfast was dismissed by the PSNI as a "firework." Sinn Fein Councillor Joe O'Donnell accused the PSNI of trying to promote an "untrue picture of events on the ground." The pipe bomb attack came on the eve of the Orange Order's ŒTour of the East' parade. (AN)

Three Catholic homes in Antrim were targeted by loyalists in paint bomb attacks. (IN)

August 14, Wednesday.

In an interview with the Guardian the 25-year-old brigadier of the UDA in North Belfast warned that loyalists Œwill kill again if Protestants are attacked'. Andre Khaled Shroukri, believed to be the youngest member of the UDA Inner Council, issued the warning in the wake of the murder of Gerard Lawlor. (See July) Shroukri, whose father was Egyptian and is nicknamed ŒYuk' and/or Œthe Egyptian' in north Belfast, is one of a number of loyalist leaders who met with the secretary of State during the summer. See the Guardian story at,3604,774027,00.html

Derry Sinn Fein councillor Billy Page claimed that he had personally witnessed uniformed PSNI officers helping loyalists put up UDA flags in the Waterside. A PSNI spokesperson denied the claim. (DN)

A prominent Ulster Unionist criticised party colleagues for failing to unequivocally condemn loyalist violence. Former Ireland rugby international Trevor Ringland said: "If we want to advance the benefits of living in a British society then we have to unequivocally stand against the wrongs of our own side as well as that originating from republicans." (IN)

August 15, Thursday. In an interview with the Derry News the UDA commander of the ŒN. Antrim and Londonderry Brigade' warned that the UDA were "still armed, still recruiting and are not prepared to bow down." Billy McFarland, also known as the ŒMexican', vowed that he would never talk to Sinn Fein and that the UDA would resist any moves towards a united Ireland. The interview was the first of three carried with the loyalist leader in the Derry News. McFarland is believed to be a member of he six man Inner Council of the UDA. (DN)

An Ancient Order of Hibernians Parade passed off peacefully in Kilkeel after a suspect device on the parade route was declared to be a hoax. (IN)

A Catholic-owned shop on Frys Road in Ballymena was burnt to the ground in a suspected sectarian attack. Weeks before the attack, the owner's home had come under attack and several windows were broken. (IN)

August 16, Friday. A Protestant workman was attacked as he went to work at the Waterfront Hall in Belfast. Two men hit him on the head after he parked his car in the nationalist Markets area of Belfast. The man was convinced that one of the men was about to draw a gun on him when a member of the public intervened. (IN)

The Derry Journal quoted local Sinn Fein assemblyman Mitchel McLaughlin as saying:

"At a time when there is a concerted campaign of loyalist intimidation and violence stretching from the east bank of the Foyle right through to Belfast it appears that unionism simply will not take a stand against sectarianism. In places like Antrim, Catholics have been intimidated and forced from their homes and the town centre has become a virtual no go area for Catholics, yet there is a deafening silence from unionist politicians on this issue."

A number of senior unionist politicians denied the claim. (DJ)

It was reported that more than 50 families, the majority of them Catholic, had been forced out of their homes in Antrim by sectarian intimidation. (IN)

Nationalist politicians reacted angrily after a booklet on sectarian attacks in east Belfast, produced by DUP MP and MLA Peter Robinson, mentioned only one attack by loyalists on the Short Strand. Despite the population balance in the area ­ 3000 Catholics, 60,000 Protestants ­ Robinson claimed that republicans were "ethnically cleansing" the area of Protestants. (See this and previous lists of sectarian attacks for full details of sectarian attacks in east Belfast.) (IN)

Two shots were fired at a house in Newtownabbey, north Belfast. There were no injuries. (IN, PSNI)

An alleged former LVF leader facing 64 charges, including murder, attempted murder and directing terrorism, was freed on bail in the High Court in Belfast. William James Fulton, from Portadown, is the brother of Mark Fulton, the LVF member who committed suicide in Maghaberry prison in June. (IN)

A Catholic primary school in Whitehead, Co Antrim, was badly damaged in an arson attack. A PSNI spokesperson said the attack "bore all the hallmarks of a sectarian attack." (IN, PSNI)

August 17, Saturday. A controlled explosion was carried out on a suspected pipe bomb thrown from the Protestant Fountain estate into the Mountjoy/Upper Bennett Street area of Derry City. The device ­ which later turned out to be a hoax ­ was discovered late in the afternoon. The PSNI evacuated a number of residents from the area while the army dealt with the device. "There were children playing football in the area when it was thrown," said the SDLP's Helen Quigley. (IN, DJ, DN)

It was reported that the British army had blown up a suspect device outside an Orange Hall in Co Down. The package contained two Royal Black Preceptory collarettes that were being donated to the lodge. (IN)

A north Belfast resident claimed she had been told by a PSNI officer that they had been ordered not to arrest loyalist rioters from Glenbryn, despite the fact that there were hundreds of hours of videotape evidence against them. The woman was planning to lodge an official complaint with the Police Ombudsman, demanding a full investigation into the officer's claims. The report claimed that in the previous ten days, loyalists had launched 13 gun and bomb attacks on Catholic homes in Alliance Avenue, and that many of the attacks over the last few months had been filmed by CCTV and news cameras, but despite this no one had been charged in connection with any of the attacks. A PSNI spokesperson denied the claims. (NBN)

Short Strand residents accused the PSNI of assisting loyalists by deliberately destroying hoses fitted to water hydrants by residents in case of petrol bomb attacks. Local sources claim the PSNI were seen cutting the hoses and then reversing landrovers over them to destroy the nozzles. One resident said that the PSNI "wanted to see Catholic homes burned." (SBN)

It was reported that up to 1000 loyalists had gathered in a show of strength on the Albertbridge Road, near the Short Strand interface in east Belfast. Sinn Fein claimed the gathering, which they said was organised by the UDA, was an attempt to intimidate Catholic residents of the Short Strand. (SBN)

The UDA denied that it was behind recent pipe bomb attacks in south Belfast. Sinn Fein's Alex Maskey responded that: "The pipe bomb has become the weapon of choice for loyalist death squadsŠgiven that two well known loyalists were spotted on the Ormeau Road last week the finding of these pipe bombs [one in University Avenue, one in Walmer Street off the Upper Ormeau Road ­ see above] is a worrying development." (SBN)

A source within the UDA claimed that the majority of crimes in the loyalist Village area of Belfast were caused by nationalists from west Belfast, and warned nationalist youths to stay out of the area, "or face the consequences." (SBN)

It was reported that Andrew Hunter, the British Conservative party's vice-chairman of the Northern Ireland Committee and former spokesman on Northern Ireland was a member of the Orange Order. Sinn Fein's Cathy Stanton said: "The Conservative Party has a long record of MPs who have strong Unionist sympathies and this latest revelation will come as little surprise to anyone. However I would have thought that if they were serious about tackling exclusion within the party they would have banned MPs from joining organisations such as the Orange Order. This is an organisation which is blatantly sectarian." (SBN)

DUP deputy leader Peter Robinson again accused nationalists of starting sectarian violence around the Short Strand interface in east Belfast, and claimed that it would not stop until the PSNI "took possession of the Short Strand." Meanwhile, Short Strand residents and Sinn Fein representatives produced video evidence that they claimed showed nationalists under sustained attack from the loyalist side of the interface. (IN)

August 18, Sunday. Six PSNI officers were treated for injuries stemming from rioting along the Short Strand/Cluan Place interface. While the police claim they were keeping rival factions of Catholics and Protestants apart, residents in the Short Strand claim the police attacked young people in the area. Sinn Fein claims it has video footage of the clashes that prove police misconduct. (IN)

A suspect device was found outside a GAA club in Dundrum, Co. Down. Army technical officers later declared the device a hoax. (IN)

Speaking at an annual Hunger Strike commemoration, IRSP member John Murtagh announced that the INLA "will use any means necessary" in defending "working class homes from sectarian attack." The INLA are widely believed to have been behind last month's shooting of a Protestant man ­ Mark Blaney ­ in Glenbryn. (DJ)

Two men were arrested after weapons and ammunition were found in a car in Newtownabbey, north Belfast. A pipe bomb, and component parts for pipe bombs, were discovered by youths in Grove Park in north Belfast. (IN, PSNI)

August 19, Monday. Two men appeared in court to have their charges upgraded to murder following the death of 20-year-old Christopher Whitson. Mr Whitson ­ a Catholic ­ was the victim of a sectarian beating outside Kelly's nightclub in Portrush, Co. Antrim. The two accused are David Gaston (21) of Ballymena and Gary Davidson (28) of Broughshane. A third man, Robin Neeson (24) of Broughshane, had already been charged with Mr Whitson's murder. (NBN, IN)

A Catholic couple and their two teenage sons escaped injury in a pipe bomb attack on their home in Carrickfergus, outside Belfast. The bomb destroyed the kitchen of their home. It was the second time the family, who have been forced out of two homes by sectarian intimidation, have been targeted by pipe bombers. (IN, PSNI)

The Lord Mayor of Belfast Alex Maskey (SF) argued that republican and unionist politicians should visit troubled interface areas together. "What would be a better message of reconciliation and working together than David Ervine and me being in Cluan Place, being in Clandeboye, being on the Shankill Road with Chris McGimpsey, Michael McGimpsey or Reg Empey and other members of the Ulster Unionist city council party?" Thus far, there has been little cross-party action in terms of dealing with the ongoing sectarian attacks in Belfast. (IN)

Sinn Fein released the video footage that they claimed proved that the PSNI had attacked Short Strand residents without provocation the previous Saturday night. In the video one resident was seen being struck by a baton, and the officer with the baton is then seen aiming a strike at the man holding the camera. The man filming the incident sustained a broken hand. Sinn Fein's Stephen Long said: "There was absolutely no riot or confrontation between the two rival factions. The police just came in and launched a savage attack on our communityŠWe believe the police were here to satisfy a political agenda on Saturday night. There have been calls from unionists for more policing in the Short Strand and this appeared to be a response to those calls." Meanwhile, a group of international observers described policing in east Belfast as "ineffective." One member of the group said: "The group was singularly puzzled by the apparent ineffective presence of a large manned police station in the middle of the distressed area." (IN)

A Belfast man claimed that a pipe bomb that the PSNI claimed had been thrown at North Queen Street barracks as part of a failed attack was actually one he had found a few hundred metres away and handed into the barracks himself. The man, who did not wish to be named, said that he had carried the device to the barracks, where he was told by an officer to leave it on the ground outside. (IN)

An explosive device found outside a Catholic home in north Belfast was defused by the British army. (IN)

Post office officials announced that the Royal Mail's Barna Square delivery centre in Newtownabbey (on the edge of north Belfast) would not reopen. The centre had been closed since January of this year when postal worker Daniel McColgan ­ a Catholic ­ was shot dead by the UDA/UFF as he arrived for work. Since that time, Catholic workers have been unwilling to travel to the delivery centre which is located in the loyalist Rathcoole estate. (IN)

August 20, Tuesday. Sir Reg Empey, the Ulster Unionist assembly member for east Belfast, met with Security Minister Jane Kennedy to discuss the ongoing sectarian violence along the Cluan Place/Clandeboye interface. "I don't understand this terrible necessity for people to say that [sectarian attacks are] coming from both sides," said Empey. He then went on to claim that "the general tide [of attacks are] coming from the Short Strand." The only solution, said Empey, was CCTV cameras and a "permanent police presence on both sides of the wall." (IN)

Representatives from the Loyalist Commission ­ which includes members of paramilitary groups such as the UDA, UVF and Red Hand Commando ­ met with Northern Ireland Office officials at Stormont to discuss interface violence. The talks were described as an "ongoing process of meetings announced by the Secretary of State and Prime Minister Tony Blair." The Loyalist Commission said they found the meeting "constructive." (IN)

An 82-year-old Catholic woman from the Short Strand suffered an asthma attack after her home was repeatedly hit with various missiles thrown from the other side of the "peace line." Loyalist youths attacked Catholic homes from two interface areas. They hurled bricks, ball bearings, golf balls, etc. from both Cluan Place and Madrid Street. Much of the attack was captured on video. Residents of the Short Strand now intend to send copies of the video to the Department of Foreign Affairs and the Northern Ireland Office. The night's violence was later described as "the most sustained assault" on the Short Strand since the recent trouble began. (IN, SBN, AN, CW)

The Irish News reported that "up to 300 loyalists" blocked the Albertbridge and Mountpottinger Roads in east Belfast. Catholics living in the Short Strand claimed that loyalists then threw a number of petrol bombs and blast bombs at their homes. (IN)

A Catholic family in Randalstown, Co. Antrim was awakened around 2.00am by the sound of someone trying to break down their back door. When one family member looked out the window, he saw three masked men ­ one carrying what appeared to be a gun. The men made off once they realised they had been detected. The family believe loyalists were targeting them. It was the second attack on the family in less than 48 hours, coming just after a male member of the family was assaulted by a loyalist mob in the town. (IN, AN)

In a phone call to the Irish News, the loyalist Red Hand Defenders (a cover name for the UDA/UFF) threatened that "if there is one more brick thrown by Catholics at houses in Glenbryn every resident on the upper half of Alliance Avenue Š will be forcibly removed from their homes." John White, formerly of the UDA-linked Ulster Democratic Party and now spokesperson for the Ulster Political Research Group, described the threat as non-existent. "As far as I'm concerned," added White, "[the Red Hand Defenders] does not exist." (IN, NBN)

Shots were fired into the living room of a Catholic family living along Alliance Avenue in north Belfast. The shots were fired at around 8.20pm. While no one was injured in the attack, a mother and her 15-year-old son were taken to the hospital and treated for shock. "This kind of incident has been happening every night here," said the homeowner. "There were no houses in Glenbryn being attacked when this happened. They just picked our house at random and fired through the window." The attack came just hours after the RHD (UDA/UFF) had issued its threat against Catholics in north Belfast. Shots were also fired in the vicinity of the peaceline between Ardoyne and Glenbryn. (IN, NBN)

A number of residents from east Belfast's Short Strand held a peaceful protest outside the office of the Northern Ireland Policing Board. The group unfurled a banner which read "Short Strand Against Sectarianism" while a collection of missiles which had been thrown into the Short Strand from the loyalist Cluan Place were dumped at the door of the office. "People are forced to protect their own homes because the police are failing to do so," said one angry resident. (IN)

The Housing Executive was forced to suspend repair work on Catholic homes in the Short Strand after coming under attack from loyalists. (IN)

August 21, Wednesday. The dissident republican group the ŒReal' IRA issued a statement claiming "responsibility for the execution of David Caldwell on a military barracks in Derry." Caldwell was the Protestant construction worker killed on 1 August when he picked up a bomb on the grounds of a Territorial Army base. It was the first death attributed to the ŒReal' IRA since the Omagh bomb. David Caldwell's partner, Mavis McFaul, again called for no retaliation for the killing. (DJ, IN)

A delegation of residents from the Short Strand, including Sinn Fein councillor Joe O'Donnell, met with Security Minister Jane Kennedy to discuss the ongoing sectarian attacks on the small Catholic enclave in east Belfast. Cllr. O'Donnell also raised questions in regard to the behaviour of the police in the Short Strand. He claimed that members of the PSNI were guilty of assaulting residents in the Short Strand and that they had facilitated attacks upon Catholic homes. During a clean up operation in the Short Strand, carried out by residents, remnants of petrol bombs, paint bombs and pipe bombs, and even two WWII hand grenades that had been thrown into the area, were collected. Speculating on who threw the grenades, a PSNI spokesperson said; "It's fair to say Š we are looking at loyalist paramilitary involvement." Press photographs showed streets and gardens littered with broken bricks, ball-bearings, coins, fireworks, hammers and nuts and bolts. DUP councillor Sammy Wilson then claimed that this was actually ammunition gathered by residents for attacks on loyalists, and that the hose pipes set up in case of petrol bomb attacks were actually there to fire water at loyalists. (SBN, AN, IN)

A Catholic home at the corner of Clandeboye Gardens in the Short Strand was engulfed in flames after it was hit by a blast bomb and petrol bombs thrown by loyalists. The owner of the house said he had just moved his children to safety when the attack occurred. Also that night ball bearings, stones, bricks and fireworks were fired or thrown into the Short Strand. (IN)

Loyalists threw stones and golf balls as a funeral cortege was making its way into St Matthew's Church in the Short Strand. Three pipe bombs were thrown into Bryson Street, also in the Short Strand. Two exploded. (AN)

SDLP representatives condemned the PSNI for failing to halt loyalist attacks on the Short Strand. Councillor Pat McCarthy asked: "Is it incompetence or reluctance to take action against these people carrying out these sustained attacks on the people of the Short Strand?" Councillor Margaret Walsh said: "The PSNI are supposed to be a force for both communities, and I don't think residents of Clandeboye Drive feel that is true." (IN, AN)

Gunmen allegedly opened fire on both sides of north Belfast's Alliance Avenue/Glenbryn interface. According to community representatives from the Protestant Glenbryn area, 30 shots were fired from the other (nationalist) side of the sectarian divide; six pipe bombs were also alleged to have been thrown. Two Protestant men were said to have been injured in these attacks. Meanwhile, Margaret McClenaghan of Sinn Fein dismissed the claims but said that four bursts of semi-automatic gunfire had come from Glenbryn. An elderly Catholic couple living along Alliance Avenue were hospitalised after a nail bomb exploded at the rear of their house. The attacks took place in the afternoon. (NBN)

A spokesperson for the Northern Ireland Housing Executive called for an end to attacks on their staff. Housing Executive contractors are currently repairing homes in Clandeboye Drive in east Belfast's Short Strand area. They have repeatedly come under fire from stone throwing loyalists on the other side of the Clandeboye Drive/Cluan Place interface. One contractor, who did not wish to be named, said: "If I go up on a roof within a matter of minutes I am attacked. I have been here since July and the situation has got worse. You are looking over your shoulder the same time you are working." Sinn Fein Councillor Joe O'Donnell said: "While the attacks on Housing Executive workers were taking place the PSNI maintained a presence in Clandeboye, once again failing to deal with the attacks from Cluan Place." The PSNI deny the claim. (SBN, IN)

Two shots were fired through the front door of a Catholic family living in Coleraine's Harpur's Hill estate. The SDLP's John Dallat (MLA) linked the shooting to the appearance of a new mural in the estate commemorating William Campbell, the young UDA/UFF member who died earlier this year when a pipe bomb he was preparing exploded in his hand. (IN, DJ)

Loyalists rioted in the Albertbridge Road/Templemore Avenue area of east Belfast. The rioting was on the edge of the nationalist Short Strand. According to a PSNI spokesman, the UVF were responsible for the violence and the violence came exclusively from loyalists. (IN)

The Andersonstown News carried a picture of Belfast's Black Mountain on which loyalists from Ballysillan and Forthriver had used white sheets to spell out "KAT" (Kill All Taigs ­ i.e. Catholics) and "UFF." As the newspaper said, the "chilling message [could be] seen by thousands of west Belfast Catholics." (AN)

Loyalists threatened the life of a Catholic football player just hours before he was due to captain the Northern Ireland team in a friendly match against Cyprus. Neil Lennon, a native of Lurgan, Co. Armagh, has often faced threats since playing for the Northern Ireland team. These threats worsened when the 31-year-old signed for Glasgow Celtic. Though no code word was used, the man who phoned the threat into the BBC claimed to be from the LVF (which the LVF later denied.) Lennon pulled out of the match and has since quit the Northern Ireland team. Nearly all political parties in the north condemned the threat save representatives of both the UVF-aligned PUP and the UDA-aligned Ulster Political Research Group, who, along with Willie Frazer of victims' group FAIR, accused Lennon of over reacting. (IN, BBC, UTV, AN)

An ambulance station in east Belfast was forced to close during loyalist rioting in the Albertbridge Road area. A spokesperson for the Ambulance Service said that they had to consider the safety of their staff and patients. (IN)

August 22, Thursday. Unionist politicians, community workers and clergy issued a statement demanding that "the republican movement Š end its orchestrated aggression and allow people [living in east Belfast] to do so in peace." Those who signed the statement include Peter Robinson and Sammy Wilson of the DUP, Sir Reg Empey of the UUP, David Ervine of the PUP and Rev. Mervyn Gibson of the Loyalist Commission. [PSNI Assistant Chief Constable Alan McQuillan has since stated that the "significant majority" of interface violence was coming from loyalist organisations.] (IN)

More work was carried out on the security fencing on Derry's west bank. According to the Irish News, "additional fencing will be erected along Harding Street which neighbours the Protestant Fountain estate." SDLP councillor Helen Quigley called the work "deeply unfortunate but necessary." She went on to note that "these measures are the only way of providing the environment of greater safety and security that the people who live in this area have the right to demand." Sectarian attacks have occurred on both sides of this interface. (IN, DJ)

Missiles were hurled over the Alliance Avenue/Glenbryn "peaceline" in the late afternoon. Catholics in Alliance Avenue claimed shots had been fired from the Glenbryn area and a number of stones, fireworks, etc. had hit their homes. Protestants in the Glenbryn area disputed the claims and argued that blast bombs and shots had been fired from the Catholic side of the north Belfast interface. A fireman and a Glenbryn resident were later treated in the Mater Hospital for "blast-bomb related injuries." (IN)

Bricks, stones, bolts and fireworks were fired into the Short Strand from Cluan Place, Thistle Court and Templemore Avenue, on the loyalist side of the east Belfast interface. (AN)

August 23, Friday. Derry SDLP councillor Thomas Conway argued that the proliferation of flags flying in areas of the city was turning parts of Derry into ghettos. While noting that it was an issue affecting both Catholic/nationalist and Protestant/unionist communities, he added that the problem was "most pointed" in the Protestant/unionist community. The councillor feared that the "ghettoisation" of Derry would hinder further investment in the area. (IN)

Republicans were blamed for a gun attack on a Protestant pensioner's home in Glenbryn Park in north Belfast. No one was injured in the shooting, which came a short time after loyalists targeted a Catholic home in Alliance Avenue, where a terminally ill man and his two sons escaped injury. (IN)

An independent report, produced by two American Œconflict consultants', recommended the construction of a new wall between nationalist and loyalist districts in north Belfast. (IN)

The Presbyterian Church in Ireland called for an end to the "self-indulgent, fear filled and aggressive interface rioting" in Belfast. (IN)

A High Court action was filed against the Secretary of State and the PSNI. The action, filed by a woman living in the Catholic Short Strand area of east Belfast, claimed that both John Reid and the PSNI had failed to protect nationalists living in the Short Strand. (IN, AN)

Unionist political representatives from both north and east Belfast met to discuss the ongoing sectarian violence in the city. "It is obvious there is an orchestrated republican campaign in the interfaces and violence from loyalist paramilitaries," said the UUP's Reg Empey. The unionists called for the use of CCTV cameras along the various interfaces to bring an end to the "blame game." However, Sinn Fein's Joe O'Donnell later pointed out that there are already a number of cameras in the area and they have "been ineffectual in ending the attacks on the Short Strand". (IN)

The Parades Commission banned a Royal Black Preceptory parade from marching between the junction of Crumlin Road and Hesketh Road and the junction of Woodvale Parade and Woodvale Road. The areas are near the Alliance Avenue/Glenbryn interface in north Belfast. "It's the right decision, given the level of loyalist violence directed at Ardoyne in recent weeks," said Sinn Fein's Eoin O Broin. However, Nelson McCausland of the DUP argued the decision would "damage relationships even further in [the] area." (IN, NBN)

August 24, Saturday. The North Belfast News reported that independent unionist councillor Tommy Kirkham, formerly of the UDA aligned UDP, had refused to meet with Sinn Fein's Briege Meehan to discuss the ongoing sectarian troubles in the Glengormley and Whitewell areas. Cllr. Meehan noted that the areas have "suffered the worst toll for UDA killings in the north with the murders of three young men under 20 within a year." Kirkham, however, said, "I don't meet with Sinn Fein/IRA or any republican group." (NBN)

The South Belfast News reported that the Deputy Mayor of Castlereagh ­ Michael Copeland (UUP) ­ would not condemn nor condone loyalist attacks on the Short Strand in east Belfast. "The bottom line here," said Copeland, "is that people no matter what colour or creed they are have a right to defend their households." The Deputy Mayor claimed he had spent a number of nights in Cluan Place on the Protestant side of the troubled interface. Meanwhile, Alliance Party councillor Michael Long called on Copeland to "reconsider his comments and join with representatives of all democratic parties by condemning all violence without reservation." (SBN)

According to the PUP's Billy Hutchinson, there "has been an ongoing problem that Protestant people walking along the Cliftonville Road are identified and attacked by nationalist youths." Sinn Fein's Eoin O Broin responded by saying that his party was eager to resolve the problem. "We would appeal to parents to make sure their children are not involved in this kind of sectarian bullying," he said. (NBN)

Two petrol bombs were thrown at the house of a Catholic priest in the Short Strand, while Catholics attending Mass in St Matthew's were also attacked by loyalists. Attacks on the Short Strand continued from early afternoon until after midnight. (AN)

August 25, Sunday. A number of children ­ including an 18-month-old baby ­ escaped injury when loyalists hurled fireworks into the east Belfast's Short Strand area. The fireworks were thrown into Clandeboye Gardens from Cluan Place. Meanwhile, Cllr. Jim Rodgers (UUP) claimed that nationalists had also thrown missiles into Cluan Place and that a pipe bomb had also been thrown into the area. Attacks on the Short Strand began at 8.00am and continued throughout the day. Residents claimed that the security forces made no attempt to stop the attacks. (IN, AN)

Two families ­ one Protestant and one Catholic ­ were targeted in separate sectarian attacks in Larne. The Protestant family's home in Hillmount Gardens was attacked by a gang of masked men who smashed windows and set fire to the family car. No one was in the house at the time. In the second attack, windows were broken at a Catholic family's home at Fanad Drive. A PSNI Superintendent revealed that there had been 18 attacks on Catholic homes in the town in one two week period, and that a number of Protestant families had been forced out of the Seacourt estate. (IN)

August 26, Monday. In one twenty-minute period alone a total of 100 fireworks were thrown from Cluan Place into the Short Strand. Again, the attacks continued throughout the day, and the security forces were accused of failing to make any attempt to stop them. (AN)

August 27, Tuesday. A controlled explosion was carried out on a pipe bomb found on the loyalist side of the Ardoyne/Glenbryn interface in north Belfast. (IN)

A Catholic school in north Belfast was damaged in a sectarian arson attack. A store room and kitchen at the Dominican College were completely destroyed in the attack. The attack came on the same day it was revealed that admissions to the Holy Cross primary school ­ the site of last years violent loyalist picket ­ had fallen by a third. (IN, NBN)

Housing Executive workers repairing homes in the Short Strand again came under attack from loyalists. An unexploded firework attached to a gas canister was found in the back garden of a house in Clandeboye Drive. Loyalists were seen filming Short Strand residents from a house in Cluan Place. Again, attacks on the Short Strand continued sporadically throughout the day. (AN)

August 28, Wednesday. A Catholic mother and her four children escaped uninjured after two blast bombs thrown by loyalists exploded outside their home in the Short Strand in east Belfast. It was the second time in the last four months that loyalist bombers had targeted their home. (SBN)

A young Catholic mother from the Short Strand was attacked by loyalists as she left a local doctor's surgery with her young child. (AN)

Loyalists attacked Catholic homes on Mountpottinger Road and Clandeboye Drive in the Short Strand. Attacks by loyalists on the Short Strand with bricks, stones, bottles, paint bombs, petrol bombs, fireworks, acid bombs and pipe bombs continued unabated throughout the day. At one stage a PSNI officer admitted that nothing was being thrown from the Short Strand. At 11.30pm, after a full day of loyalist attacks, the PSNI and army entered the Short Strand and began firing plastic bullets at nationalists, as loyalist attacks continued. (AN)

Ulster Unionist leader and Stormont First Minister David Trimble was accused of snubbing nationalist residents, after he visited Cluan Place on the loyalist side of the interface in east Belfast, but refused to enter the nationalist Short Strand to witness the damage done to homes there. He claimed that security advice prevented him from entering the Short Strand. A community worker from the Short Strand said: "Today, just minutes after David Trimble had left, the fireworks started coming over the wall. This while the place was crawling with security and all captured on camera by visiting journalists. What we would like to ask is, as First Minister to all of the people of the north, why did David Trimble not visit the Short Strand? We have been under attack for months and yet he chose to simply pretend we didn't exist." A number of missiles were thrown into Cluan Place as Trimble was leaving the area. (IN, AN)

A Newtownabbey man, who admitted setting fire to a Catholic church because he wanted "to be a hero", was jailed for four years at Belfast Crown Court. Graham Proctor had admitted the arson attack on St Mary's on the Hill Church in Glengormley in June 2001. (IN)

The wife of Ulster Unionist councillor Michael Copeland was injured when acid was thrown during trouble in east Belfast. Short Strand representatives denied that the acid was thrown from the nationalist side of the interface, claiming that the area had come under sustained attack from loyalists, and that four men were injured by plastic bullets fired when the British army moved into the area. (IN)

August 29, Thursday. It was reported that the chief suspect for the murder of Catholic man Gerard Lawlor in July is a senior member of the LVF in north Belfast. The UFF claimed the killing, but the LVF and the UFF/UDA are known to work closely together, and both use the cover name of the Red Hand Defenders. A senior security source was quoted as saying that the LVF carried out the murder at the request of the UFF. (IN)

A heavy military presence was introduced into east Belfast after Belfast Assistant Chief Constable Alan McQuillan claimed that the UVF and IRA were orchestrating interface violence. Nationalists branded the introduction of the military as just "a PR exercise." Attacks on the Short Strand continued, with workmen who were trying to repair houses being forced to leave and missiles thrown into the Short Strand from the Newtownards Road, Thistle Court and Paulette Avenue, all on the loyalist side of the interface. (IN, NL)

Loyalists attacked a Catholic home in Alliance Avenue, north Belfast, with stones and a petrol bomb. No one was injured in the incident. (IN)

August 30, Friday. A Catholic taxi driver working in the Waterside area of Derry received a death threat from loyalist paramilitaries. Those making the threat sent copies of the man's personal details to his place of work. (CW)

Stoneyford Orangeman Mark Harbinson was refused bail in Belfast High Court, where he faced a charge of riotous assembly relating to this year's Drumcree violence. Harbinson was the spokesman who declared at the first of a series of so-called Grand Protestant Rallies, held in Ballymena in September last year, that he was now looking forward to "B52 bombers over Dublin" in the wake of the USA's war against terrorism. Another speaker at the same meeting, Grand Protestant Committee spokesman Ray Hamill, reminded the audience that "the most evil men in history", Hitler, Mussolini and Ribbentrop were all Roman Catholics. He also accused Tony Blair of having a Roman Catholic agenda, because his wife, Cherie Blair, is a Catholic, and pointed out that the Secretary of State, John Reid, is also a Catholic. (IN, PFC, UTV)

A man escaped injury when a pipe bomb was thrown through the window of his home at Seaview Drive in north Belfast. The device exploded, causing extensive damage to the house. (PSNI)

August 31, Saturday. It was reported that a Belfast man who received a bullet in the post wrapped in a note containing a loyalist death threat had been told by the PSNI that they would not investigate the incident, but would instead charge the Sinn Fein representative that he passed the bullet to with possession of ammunition. The Twinbrook man, who received the bullet wrapped in a note reading, "See you soon scumbag ­ UFF", said that he reported the threat to the PSNI, and to Sinn Fein MLA Sue Ramsey. The PSNI allegedly told him they would charge Ms Ramsey with possession. She told reporters: "This man contacted me first because he was afraid his name and address had been passed to loyalists by PSNI intelligenceŠ. He was later advised by his solicitor to contact the PSNI to report the incidentŠThey told him there was no point in them investigating the threat, adding that if I was found to be in possession of the bullet then I would be arrested and charged." (AN)

It was reported that drug dealers exiled from west Belfast, who had become involved in drug dealing with loyalist paramilitaries, were now under threat from those same loyalists. Graffiti appeared on walls in Antrim reading: "Taig [Catholic] dealers will be shot." The graffiti was signed RHD, for Red Hand Defenders, a cover name for the UDA/UFF. Local Sinn Fein councillor Martin Meehan claimed that: "It is a strange and twisted logicŠIt seems to say the UDA will not tolerate Catholic drug dealers but it does tolerate drug dealers of all other religious denominations." (AN)

As the beginning of a new school term approached, it was reported that hopes were high that last year's violent loyalist protest outside the Holy Cross Primary School in north Belfast would not be repeated. Negotiations were said to have been ongoing throughout the summer. However, it was also reported that a heavy security force presence would be on stand-by as the children returned to school. (AN, IN)

The following is an excerpt from an article from the Andersonstown News on 31/8/02, reflecting life in Cluan Place, on the loyalist side of the Short Strand interface:

"ŠIn a bid to uncover the truth behind Belfast's most violent interface the Andersonstown News this week went behind the dividing wall and into the loyalist Cluan Place.

"The first thing that strikes any visitor is the size of Cluan Place ­ the area is no more than a cul-de-sac. Most of the houses have been abandoned, with heavy metal shutters on the windows painted red, white and blue. Only about eight houses remain occupied, there are no children in the street ­ families with children have all left.

"That is no surprise. During the month of June I spent a night in the Short Strand and loud rave music was played from Cluan Place until the next morning. I remember thinking how anyone living there with children must be at their wit's end.

"A small group of residents sit out on the street under a makeshift shelter and any visitor is immediately treated with suspicion. Having been in the Short Strand during the worst of the disturbances I am amazed that the huge security operations that have been put in place have been unable to control attacks from this area. It is so small ­ just one way in and one way out ­ three jeeps would be enough to block the entrance and stop the hordes of loyalists who have been seen in this area.

"What is also evident is that the security fence recently raised to try and control the situation has merely created a platform for attacks to be launched. The scaffolding used to erect the fence has been left on the loyalist side making it easy to climb up the huge wall to launch any attack. The paint left in footprints on the scaffolding and the paint on the rubber gloves that lie all around is the same colour as the paint splattered over the windows of homes in the nationalist Clandeboye.

"We speak to the residents, none of whom will have their picture taken or go on the record. You can see how this small street would have once been a safe place to live. Now taken over on a nightly basis by loyalists, you feel that the few mostly elderly people who still live here are as much victims as the people of the StrandŠ" (AN)

Short Strand residents accused the PSNI of a partisan approach to dealing with sectarian violence at the east Belfast interface. Sinn Fein councillor Joe O'Donnell said: "We see no raids on pipe bomb factories, no arrests for the murder of Catholics and no action to stop the nightly attacks on this small nationalist community. What we do see is the PSNI attacking the nationalist community, raiding homes, assaulting people and firing plastic bullets." The PSNI were also accused of giving Unionist politicians "escorted tours" of the Short Strand. Residents claimed that the only way that Peter Robinson, Nigel Dodds or Sammy Wilson, all of the DUP and who all claimed to have been in the area, could have entered the Short Strand was in the back of a landrover or in cars with a police escort. The PSNI refused to confirm or deny the claim. (SBN)

BT: Belfast Telegraph
BBC: BBC radio and television news, BBC online, Radio Foyle
CW: Local community workers
DJ: Derry Journal
DN Derry News
G: Guardian
IN: Irish News
IT: Irish Times
ITN: Independent Television News
LS: Londonderry Sentinel
NBN: North Belfast News
NL: Newsletter
PFC: Pat Finucane Centre
RM: RM Distribution
PSNI: Police Service of Northern Ireland press office.
SBP: Sunday Business Post
SBN: South Belfast News
ST: Sunday Tribune
UTV: Ulster Television